The first objective in this research area is to better understand the structure and function of selected target products (and value chains) resulting from icipe interventions. The main focus is on identifying market channels and actors, the distributions of prices, and measuring margins and transaction costs along the value chain and existing opportunities, benefits and constraints faced by women, men and the youth along the value chains. The second objective is on developing and testing alternative institutional innovations for improving markets for small producers and consumers, with special emphasis on reducing transaction costs and enhancing the flow of information on markets, quality and food safety standards and nutrition of the products. The third objective is on evaluating and developing policy options for enhancing the market environment for the target products, with emphasis on the appropriate role of the public and private sector, and barriers to and competitiveness in regional trade and international trade.