This research area focuses on exploring policy options and institutions that can support the effective translation of icipe's research innovations/technologies into livelihood impacts. This area has two priority research objectives. The first objective is to evaluate alternative business models for supplying and financing icipe technologies (such as desmodium and Brachiaria seeds, the tsetse collar, and biopeticides in IPM package) and other purchased inputs that enhance farm productivity. The second objective is to analyse and evaluate policies, incentives and regulations that govern input delivery and innovation systems, for some of the innovations developed by icipe, in different countries. Policies and regulation of IPM and pesticides products were documented for Ethiopia and Kenya.